History Of Croatia Summary

Through the turbulent history of Croatian on old dream of an independent state was accomplished only twice. The first time in tenth century when in 925  under the leadership of King Tomislav Croatia became a kingdom.

The second time (I hope the last time) 1991 when it was born a new Croatian state from the ashes of former Yugoslavia, becoming a reality of the thousand-year-old dream of independence.

Did you know? Croatia was recognized for the first time in history on 7 June 879, when Pope John VIII granted Duke Branimir the title dux Croatorum.

Croatia history is extremely rich with valuable cultural and historical heritage, as a  testimonial of belonging of Croatia to Middle-European and Mediterranean cultural and civilization tradition.

Whichever part of Croatia you visit, the traces of ancient history are visible everywhere from Illyrians, Greeks to the Romans, Hungarian to Austrians, Napoleonic to Venice.

The specific urban culture of coastal and island areas is easily seen in towns such as: Porec, Rovinj, Pula, Zadar, Sibenik, Hvar, Korcula and Ston, Stari Grad (Hvar island) with Split (Diocletian's Palace) and Dubrovnik, most of them making a part of the world cultural heritage under UNESCO protection.

Pula's Roman Arena is one of the best preserved amphitheaters after those in Rome and Verona!

Important dates in history of Croatia

Below you'll find some important dates of the main historical periods of the Croatia past from Illyrians to the present days.

  • llyrians period from 1000 BC
  • Around 400BC the first Greek colonies are founded on Adriatic islands (Pharos – Stari Grad on Hvar island.
  • Around 100BC Romans rule over the east coast of Adriatic, with Salona (Solin) as a capital. Roman monuments are present everywhere along the Adriatic coast ( Pula amphitheatre, Zadar Forum, Split Diocletian Palace and many others).

History of Croatia from 7th century to 1941

  • At the beginning of the 7th century Croats (Horvats) have arrived on Balkan peninsula.
  • The short period of the Croatian kingdom under Kings Tomislav, Kresimir, Zvonimir.
  • From 1102 to 1526 Croatia was under common Hungarian and Croatian Kings.
  • From 1527 to 1918 Croatia makes a part of Austrian-Hungarian Empire, while the part of Adriatic coast was under the Venice rule, except Dubrovnik Republic.
  • From 1918 to 1941 Croatia became a part of Kingdom of Yugoslavia ( Kingdom of Serbia-Croatia-Slovenia) under the strong domination of Serbian dynasty).

Period from 1941 to 1945 to present days

  • From 1941 to 1945 is a period of the independent state of Croatia so called a Nazi puppet state which I consider the darkest period in history of Croatia.
  • From 1945 to 1991 Croatia is a part of Tito’s Yugoslavia, sometimes called Second Yugoslavia, where Croatia was one of 6 republics.
  • From January 1992 after 4 years of homeland war, Croatia become internationally recognized independent state.
  • From July 2013 Croatia has become a member of EU community.

Key Facts In The History of Croatia

Through history Croatia has had many foreign rulers. As a reason for this, Croatian history is marked by a sequence of different cultures but it was always considered as the meeting point of Western civilization and the East.

Although Croatia has passed under the influence of many different cultures - Greek, Roman, Illyrian, Austrian, Hungarian, Byzantine, Venetian  - it gave its own and unique contribution to the history of European civilization.

Strong influence of different cultures reflected in customs, crafts and folklore, and also in eating habits. Regional cuisines all over Croatia have become more and more available to foreign guests as part of the tourist services.

Italian (better to say Venetian) influence is strong along the coastline while Hungarian and Austrian etiquette can still be seen in the continental interior.

Here are some useful resources about events in Croatia history:

  1. Croatia history by Wikipedia
  2. Croatia and Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 24 April 2012
  3.  Diocletian Palace in Split, Croatia

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